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Which cities does Speed consider the major ones of Europe? How do Spanish cities compare? Does the novel provide sufficient information to create a precise map of his route?

Guide to the Classics: ‘Don Quixote,’ the World’s First Novel and One of the Best

John Speed included this map of Spain in his world atlas, the earliest compiled by an Englishman. Cervantes wrote Don Quixote as Spain was completing its transformation from a society in which Muslims, Jews, and Christians lived alongside one another in conditions of relative tolerance to one that would be—at least officially—exclusively Catholic and absolutely intolerant of religious differences. At the beginning of the eighth century, North African and Arab Muslims, known as Moors, invaded the Iberian peninsula and, for over years, remained a significant presence in the region.

At their height, Muslim states, known collectively as al-Andalus , extended across the peninsula into southern France. She implemented an ultimately unsuccessful policy of forced, mass conversions. Seventy years later, the Moriscos remained a largely unassimilated population that spoke Arabic, followed Muslim customs, and often practiced Islam in secret. In , suspicious that they might be colluding with Algerians and Turks against Spain, King Philip II ordered Morisco property in Granada to be confiscated and forbade the speaking of Arabic as well as the use of Muslim names or clothing.

The Moriscos rebelled and, after their defeat in , the king ordered them deported from Granada and scattered throughout Castile, a province in northern Spain. But a number of religious and political figures urged the crown to expel the Moriscos from Spain entirely, describing them as a disease that threatened to infect the entire political body. On September 22, , the new king, Philip III, ordered their expulsion and, within five years, approximately , people had been deported to North Africa. Bleda was the priest of a town with a large Morisco population. Examine the letter on behalf of Philip II and read the translation of the first paragraph.

What is the purpose of the letter? How does his government attempt to manage the threat he believes they pose? What is the significance of referring to Philip III as a conquistador?

How do ideas of conquest and expulsion frame the history of a population that had inhabited the Iberian Peninsula for almost 1, years? How do you interpret Morisco figures like Zoraida Vol. Su Majestad manda que luego se escriva y encargue de nuevo a las justicias de Castilla, que no den licencias a los moriscos, y que los obliguen y apremien a residir en los lugares donde estan alistados. His Majesty has been informed that the Moriscos of Aragon and Valencia have gotten restless, and that, in a certain meeting that some of them held, one of those who had come from Granada offered to send to the Kingdom of Valencia ten or twelve thousand of those who are scattered throughout Castile [transporting them] slowly up until mid April of this year, with whom, and along with the support that they expect from the king of Algeria, they plan to occupy that kingdom.

His Majesty orders that the justices of Castile be written immediately and instructed not to grant leaves to the Moriscos, and to require and insist that [the Moriscos] reside where they are registered. The eighth and final book. The stories portrayed heroic knights, loyal squires, and virtuous ladies as well as evil often Muslim antagonists and included plenty of sword fights and magic potions. The engravings, below, from a sixteenth-century French edition of Amadis and an Italian edition of Orlando furioso suggest the kind of imaginary world that Quixote inhabited through these books.

Engravings from the English and Spanish editions of Quixote offer an interesting contrast. While the popularity of the chivalric romance and epic declined dramatically during the sixteenth century, Quixote would continue to be widely read and beloved for centuries to come. What kinds of people, animals, and events do the illustrations from Amadis and Orlando portray?

How would you compare the knights in the earlier works to the representations of Quixote as a knight?

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Consider the settings and captions in the Quixote illustrations. Why do you think he would prefer to live in theirs? This bestselling Spanish chivalric romance is one of the books that drove Don Quixote to madness. Don Quixote adored this popular Italian epic poem about a knight who goes mad when he discovers that his beloved has eloped with a Moor in the enemy army. This deluxe, illustrated edition of Don Quixote was first printed in Spain in This illustration shows Don Quixote with his books before he sets out on his adventures.

Volume 1, page 4. In order to prevent the spread of heresy, the Spanish Inquisition exercised tight control over which books were published and sold in Spain. Every new book went through a process of review and licensing before it could be printed. Books already in circulation could be denounced and banned by later censors. Sometimes entire books were banned, and, especially in the early decades around , the Inquisition staged ceremonial book burnings.

Thousands of Jewish and Arabic books and manuscripts were destroyed in this way. Over the course of the sixteenth century, Inquisition officials increasingly chose to censor works more selectively. They carefully blotted out specific passages considered heretical, allowing the remainder of the work to survive for readers.

Don Quixote by Cervantes, First Edition

The Christian humanist Erasmus of Rotterdam was a writer whose works became widely influential during the early sixteenth century, only to be later targeted by the Inquisition. Critic Carroll B. In Spain, his ideas attracted many New Christians and intellectuals who modeled their spirituality after his teachings and sought to draw the Catholic Church closer in line with his views. The outer doll represented Silenus, a clownish flute player and companion to Dionysus, the god of wine.

The inner doll was a beautiful carving of a god. Alcibiades suggests that Socrates resembles these dolls: ugly and unimpressive on the surface, but great and wise within. Was not he, too, a marvelous Silenus? The censor then cut out the remaining six pages of the entry. The section stands in sharp contrast to the rest of the book, which the censor left almost completely untouched. The second and third documents are excerpts from indexes of forbidden books.

The final document below is the frontispiece of the Madrid edition of Don Quixote , featuring an image of book burning. By this time, the Inquisition was in decline, challenged more and more openly within Spain and widely ridiculed abroad. It would not be finally abolished until In what ways does Christ resemble a Silenus figure, according to Erasmus? Why might the Inquisition have seen this passage as heretical or in some way critical of the Catholic Church?

Why do you think the censor went to such lengths to preserve the two lines at the top of page and to black out the passages that follow? What is the role of adages in Don Quixote? Why do you think the Inquisition issued a rule prohibiting people from censoring or burning books on their own, without official direction?

How do they decide which books to save and which to burn? Does Cervantes parody the Inquisition in Don Quixote? Provide evidence from the text to support your answer. If it is a parody, why do you think the censors did not object to it? What do you think they hoped to accomplish with their efforts? Do you think censorship was an effective way for the Spanish state to exercise power? Examine the frontispiece of the Madrid Don Quixote. How do you interpret the figures that appear alongside Quixote—the lion, the woman, and the cherub?

What is the significance of the figure who conducts the book burning? Anyone who had valued him skin-deep as they say would not have given twopence for him… Yet, had you opened this absurd Silenus [Socrates], you would have found, you may be sure, a divine being rather than a man, a great and lofty spirit worthy of a true philosopher, one who despised all the things for which other mortals run their races, sail the seas, toil, go to law, and fight in wars; a man above resenting any injury and over whom fortune had no power at all; so far from any fear that he despised even death….

Don Quixote | Introduction & Summary |

Was not He too a marvelous Silenus, if one may be allowed to use such language of Him? And I for my part do not see how any who proudly call themselves Christians can escape the duty of reproducing this to the utmost of their power. Observe the outside surface of this Silenus: to judge by ordinary standards, what could be humbler or more worthy of disdain?

Translation from Desiderius Erasmus. Collected Works of Erasmus , Vol. Translated and annotated by R. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, This list of books forbidden by the Inquisition devotes an entire section to the work of the Christian humanist Erasmus. The Expurgation of the Works of Erasmus of Rotterdam, completed and presented by the Faculty of Theology at the University of Louvain and by the College of Censors gathered at Antwerp, approved and upheld with Royal authority, published together with the other books contained in the expurgatory Index.

From Rule It is also forbidden for anyone, acting on their own authority, to remove such errors, or to tear, cross out words from, or burn books, papers, or pages in which such errors might be found, without first showing them to the Inquisitors, so that they might be aware of them and give orders for appropriate action.

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